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The Germ Guy: Confessions of a Mercurial Microbiologist

Putting the Poo in Swimming Pools…

Over the last few years, as summer approaches, I tend to receive requests to talk about a phenomenon that might make even the nastiest person go…

(Sorry, Dr. Evil…)

I’m talking, of course, about fecal matter in swimming pools.

I’m sure you may have heard about this occurrence in the news. You may have ignored the story thinking it is another attempt to keep us in the matrix of germophobia. But in this case, the threat is real. Or, to put it another way…

(Thanks, Morpheus)

Feces in pools happens and based on some pretty convincing evidence, it’s more common than you might think. If you don’t believe me, may I suggest you read this wonderful article on the likelihood of finding fecal bacteria and viruses in your local swimming environment.

Assessment of Enteric Pathogen Shedding by Bathers during
Recreational Activity and its Impact on Water Quality

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A Microbial Version of Fight Club…

These days, when a scientific article comes out, the title is designed to provide as much information as possible into the specific subject of the study. For those immersed in that branch of science, the words make sense. But for the rest of the population, these titles invoke a rather understandable response…

(What???)

You can’t blame the researchers. They simply are following the rules of what many call the scientific club. Researchers talk in a certain way and title their papers in a scientifically conventional manner. If you don’t follow, you don’t belong.

Unfortunately, when it comes to that wider audience, researchers understand the mere sight of a complex title can leave many thinking…

(I have made a critical mistake…)

But every now and then, someone chooses to fight this convention and come out with a title that is both wonderfully composed and easy to understand. One such article came out recently in the journal PLoS Pathogens.

The article is split into three parts. The first discusses the function of what is known as a Type VI Secretion System, or T6SS for short. It’s a group of proteins assembled together in the form of well…

(A crossbow…)

Not surprisingly, the role of T6SS – as the name implies – is to send out, or secrete, factors from inside the cell to the surrounding area. As to what these factors do, the deliver what can be best described as…

(A vicious punch…)

When a bacterium feels threatened, it uses T6SS to attack other bacterial cells in the hopes of wounding or killing the invader. The authors even provided a lovely visual description of how T6SS is used…

(I couldn’t have drawn it better myself…)

In essence, T6SS is a survival mechanism designed to help ensure bacteria maintain their territory in a diverse environment.

Which brings us to the second part of the paper, where this battle is happening…

 (The gut…)

There are potentially hundreds of different species living in our gastrointestinal tract, especially in the colon. While we might like to think they are all getting along, researchers have shown this is not the case. Instead, there are microcosms in which bacteria are…

(Facing off…)

Many of the bacteria in possession of T6SS are pathogens capable of causing diarrhea and other illnesses such as cholera. The researchers suggest the presence of T6SS gives them an advantage in our guts and can increase the likelihood of symptoms.

Now it’s time for the third part, which the authors magnificently described in the following image…

(Can you guess what is happening here?)

Let’s make this even easier to understand…

  1. The yellow bacterium is a pathogen with a T6SS in place.
  2. The blue bacterium is a friendly species, also known as a commensal.
  3. using genetic engineering, commensals can be given the ability to produce antidotes to T6SS toxins such that they can defend against attack.
  4. Using engineering to give commensals the ability to make T6SS, they also can engage in battle.

The group suggests using these genetically engineered commensal species may be useful in helping to prevent and possibly treat gastrointestinal infections. While this still is little more than a theory, considering the widespread nature of gastrointestinal bacterial infections, and the rise in antibiotic resistance, this strategy may be well worth…

(Further discussion…)

If you’ve been following along, you probably have noticed I haven’t actually given the title of the paper. I first wanted to go through the article and see if you could guess what it would be called.

Based on the science, you might think the article would be called…

“Prospective genetic engineering of commensal bacterial species
as a novel means to prevent T6SS-mediated bacterial gastroenteritis” 

But no.  Instead, the title is one of the best I have seen in a long time. It is simply and brilliantly called…

T6SS: The bacterial “fight club” in the host gut.

When it comes to scientific papers, titles are simply a collection of words designed to match a particular format. Although they may appear challenging and possibly lead you to forego reading on, just remember, the authors probably had no choice. It’s just part of the scientific club.

But, if scientists had the ability to be a little more like the authors of this paper, I can assure you they would. Because while you may think researchers are highly focused, straight-laced, thinking machines devoted to the club of science – and they are – deep inside many of them, there also lies an inner…

(Tyler Durden…)

I would suggest it’s worth going past the title and learning more about what makes these people work and well, fight, as hard as they do.

Expanding Horizons Into A Brain New World…

To say the last few months have been busy would be an understatement. April and May were filled with events including keynotes, workshops and my usual “Germ Guy” performances. By the time I arrived home, there was only one thing I wanted to do…

(After I take my probiotics of course…)

But amid the chaos, I also took on a new task, which may seem a little odd at first. I decided it was time to start looking at how to communicate a very different type of science. Microbes and the immune system are fantastic but I wanted to delve into another facet of human existence…


(Neuroscience…)

This wasn’t a flight of fancy, mind you. It’s been on my mind for quite some time.

It all started a few years back when I was starting to write The Germ Files. I had been hoping to find a way to merge the worlds of microbiology and the brain. My goal at the time was to call the microbial population in all of us, “The Third Brain.” Unfortunately, when it came to making this concept – or if you wish to be accurate, conceit – work, one word came to mind…

(It simply did not work…)

Clearly, I needed to learn more before I could speak about the topic. The only issue with that, however, was a lack of time. I couldn’t afford to put in the effort needed to achieve the right level of understanding. I needed the time to read, read and read some more to gain an appreciation of neuroscience. Then I had to practice writing to effectively communicate.

I’ve been involved in this for about a year but the last few months have afforded me the chance to get comfortable with the topic. I’ve gained the right appreciation needed to go deep into the science and resurface with meaningful and enriching information for the public.

But now comes the hard part…

(Making it entertaining…)

As I continue on this journey, I may interrupt my regularly schedule germy posts with articles and other tidbits from the neuroscience world. If all goes well, you’ll have the same enjoyment factor as those dealing with microbes.

Of course, if I don’t meet your level of expectation, I hope you will let me know…

(Kindly if possible…)

In the meantime, I’ll be getting back to regular posting here on those microbiological and immunological papers and topics I find fascinating. I know it’s been quiet but hope you have not been too offended by the absence.

Oh, if you are looking to see how I have been translating neuroscience for the public, you can check out a compilation of articles I wrote over the last while here: CAN News. I’m sure you will find some of the stories fascinating at the scientific level and I hope personally engaging.

 

 

 

 

Music and the Microbe…

I didn’t post last week as I was in Finland for a series of lectures and meetings. It was a joyous time filled with science communication, advocacy and talks with some of the most wonderful people on the planet. I also had the chance to enjoy one of my most favorite foods…

(Salmon…)

Unlike what I can find in Canada, Finland offered a smorgasbord of different delights. All but one of my meals had some form of salmon. I relished every moment.

It’s one of the reasons I love travelling the world. I am given a chance to experience another society and appreciate the differences in tastes. Granted, most of the time this comes in the form of gastronomical choices.

But there is also another type of preference that changes every time I step in another country…

(Music…)

This is the band, Lordi. They are a heavy metal group known for winning the Eurovision contest a decade ago. Granted, not every Finnish person likes their style but if you happen to be going for Karaoke in Helsinki, you might want to learn their most favorite song, Hard Rock Hallelujah.

Musical choice is of course a personal one. If you ask any individual person about his or her preference in music, you may end up with a different answer each time. We tend to believe it is one of the unique aspects of being human…

(Think again…)

A fondness for music isn’t entirely a human trait. Believe it or not, music has an effect on many earthly creatures. As one saying suggests, it has the ability to calm even the most…

(Savage Beast…)

But for years we thought there was a limit. We held on to the notion music could not influence creatures who lack ears or any type of auditory nervous system.

But that changed back in 2010, thanks to a German company. They theorized bacteria could be influenced by music. The harmonic waves produced by the sound could convince these tiny creatures to work harder and accomplish more than expected.

The results were incredible. The bacteria thoroughly enjoyed the music and increased their activity. The door opened to a new type of human-microbial interaction through this form of artistic composition.

As to which artist the microbes liked best, as you might expect considering the location of the study, the answer was…

(Amadeus Amadeus!)

Now I’m sure you must be thinking there is something fishy going on here. Bacteria surely cannot distinguish musical notes, tones, or metres. There is no way they could prefer Mozart over say, Beethoven, Brahms, or…

(Beyonce…)

You would be correct. It took some time but last year, someone finally decided to put the musical preference theory to the test. The study, if you wish to read it, can be found here:
Effect of Audible Sound on Microbial Activity.

Instead of using music, the authors decided to test whether bacteria would grow in the presence of the most universal sound on the planet…

(Om…)

They tested the bacteria in the presence of this sound, as well as passages from Mozart’s The Magic Flute. If the authors were correct, there would be little to no difference between the two musical forms.

When the results came back, the team was happy to find out the answer was…

(Ya gotta respect the Master…)

There was little to no difference between the two sounds. If anything, the sound of ‘Om’ led to a slightly better performance from the bacteria. But the take home message was that bacteria liked music but had no real preferences.

The use of music as a means to improve microbial activity will continue no doubt. Researchers will continue to find the right combination of sound waves to bring out the best in bacteria. Eventually, the right combination will be found and I’m sure make for a great article and media story.

My only hope is that whomever conducts these tests in the future includes the music of one specific band…

(You had to see that coming…)

 

Why Spring May Tick You Off…

It’s that time of the year when the days last longer than the nights, the temperature warms, and many take a needed breath of relief. Winter has come to an end and we welcome the arrival of…

(Spring!)

From a health perspective, the change of season should signify a slowing down of the hectic pace caused by colds, flu, and other winter-associated illnesses. Yet, over the last decade, the stress has continued although the reason is far different.

Instead of the invisible bacteria and viruses causing all the trouble, another itchy subject has taken over as the public enemy Number 1…

(Ticks…)

As soon as the temperature holds steady at four degrees Celsius, these insects emerge from their hibernation and begin to forage for food. As you can imagine, after months of slumber, they are hungry for blood. They aren’t all that choosy either. If it’s filled with blood and has skin that is easy to penetrate, any animal – including a human – is fair game.

Ticks haven’t always been this troublesome as they used to be only present in woodlands and other rural areas. But they have claimed much more territory and call urban parks and other recreational gathering spaces home. How much you might ask…well, how about this…

(Don’t even ask to see the 2050 or 2080 estimates…)

Of course, the tick itself isn’t really the problem. Much like the mosquito, an invasion is little more than a nuisance that can quickly be remedied. But, inside many of these crawlers are microbes known to cause over a dozen different types of infections.

You may not have heard of some of the pathogens, such as Babesia, which causes anemia, or Powassan virus, which can cause fatal encephalitis. But I’m sure by now you know about the most common worry…

(Needless to say, it’s horrid…)

The mere threat of acquiring one of these infections may be enough to convince you to keep that bare skin covered or use insect repellents containing DEET. Yet, if this concern is not enough to take precautions, perhaps this might offer a good enough reason to keep these insects away…

(Welcome to the microscopic world…)

What you are looking at are the chelicerae (pronounced keh-lees-er-ay) of the tick. If you haven’t guessed what this particular appendage happens to accomplish, you might want to watch a certain video showing what it does. But before I show it, I have two quick notes.

First, this footage was made as a part of a scientific article examining how ticks actually manage to get into the skin. You can read it here:  How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

Second, if you happen to be squeamish in any way, you might want to forego watching the video. Although i find it fascinating, some people might consider it a little too um, well…

 (You get the idea…)

If you’re still willing, here’s the video in its entirety. It lasts for a few minutes but for those of you who really want to know how a tick begins its journey into the body, it’s worth the time.

 

Harnessing What Dogs Do Best To Save Lives…

Although I am more of a “cat person,” I concede dogs are incredible creatures. They love attention and return it in their own loving ways. They can be a person’s best friend as well as provide comfort to those who are truly in need.

The only drawback – if you can call it one – to these four-legged companions is their propensity to well…

(You get the idea…)

The reason behind this habit is biological in nature. The most important physiological signals are emitted from two organs known as the anal sacs. As the name implies, they are found in a rather discreet area of the body. When dogs want to learn more information about their counterpart, they attempt to find out using one of their most sensitive environmental detectors…

(The nose knows…)

For most of us, this activity may seem rather odd. But when you realize a dog’s sense of smell is hundreds of times more sensitive than humans (if not more), this is the perfect way to gain valuable information on a potential park mate.

It’s also far more effective than some other routes humans have chosen to acquire details on others such as…

(I spy…)

The olfactory superiority of dogs may be little more than a welcome piece of trivia for those moments when parties and get-togethers tend to drag on. But in 2012, a group of researchers in the Netherlands had a better use for this knowledge. The team wondered if those sensational snouts could be put to good use in a rather unlikely place…

(The hospital…)

The idea came as a result of a rather unfortunate reality occurring in health care. There was a significant rise in the number of infections caused by a pestering pathogen…

(Clostridium difficile…)

I’ve worked with this bacterium and I can tell you it has a rather unique smell. When you get to know the combination of different aromatics, you can identify it almost anywhere.

Now, as you might expect, for a human to pick up on the odour, the population needs to be in the billions, such as in a petri plate culture or from a human stool sample.

I know what you’re thinking…

(Believe me, it is…)

But for a dog, that smell may be picked up from far fewer numbers. Not to mention, the smell might be a whole new type of wonderful. It therefore should not surprise you to know when researchers went out to test their theory, the dog was…

(Happy to oblige…)

The end result was a rather interesting paper revealing a new means to identify C. difficile in healthcare facilities. You can read the study here:

Using a dog’s superior olfactory sensitivity to identify
Clostridium difficile in stools and patients: proof of principle study 

The paper was so warmly received that other institutions decided to use dogs to find the pathogen wherever it may be hiding. This included Vancouver General Hospital who recently added a new staff member to its infection prevention and control team…

(Angus…)

The spaniel has been working since November and has sniffed out dozens of C. difficile hiding spots. In each case, this happy-go-lucky worker has helped to keep hundreds of patients safe from the devious disease. His efforts have been so successful the hospital is looking to add more sniffing staff to its roster.

This is without a doubt one of those feel-good stories although for public health officials, the introduction of canine Clostridium hunters may lead to a different response…


(If you don’t get this, ask your parents…)

Considering this one bacterial species has become one of the greatest threats in healthcare facilities, any help to prevent its impact on patients is welcome news.

This story also offers one more benefit to those dog lovers out there. They finally may have a way to defuse those awkward situations when a cold nose happens to venture a little too close to certain sensitive zone…

(But it saves lives…)

Okay, maybe not…

A Hesitance in (Vaccine) Hesitancy…

If you happen to live in the United States or Canada, you’ve probably heard about the recent rise in cases of mumps or as some people like to call it…

(The Chubby Cheeks Virus…)

I’ve spoken on the virus quite a few times over the last month. Most of what I’ve said is summarized in my recent Huffington Post article, which you can read here:

Here’s The Reason Mumps Has Made A Comeback

As most people know, the best way to stay safe from this infection is vaccination. The mumps vaccine has been around for fifty years and continues to be the most effective means to keep the virus at bay.

But that doesn’t mean I am safe when I talk about these vaccine-preventable diseases. As per usual, I ensure I do my research on the history, the current situation, and any small details that could enrich the message.

Yet I also prepare for…

(A Battle of Words…)

Usually, as soon as I begin to promote vaccines, I can expect to be assailed by a small yet very vocal population of people who are against vaccination as a whole. There are a number of different names associated with these individuals but the most common in today’s scientific lingo is…

(Vaccine Hesitancy…)

The usual argument follows a similar script.

Me: Vaccines are effective.
Them: Vaccines are bad!
Me: Vaccines are safe.
Them: Vaccines are bad!
Me: Vaccines prevent infection
Them: Vaccines are bad!
(Repeat ad nauseum)

No matter what clinical evidence or molecular mechanism I provide, there is simply no room for these valuable medicines in their world. Eventually, the tone gets ugly and at times the attacks change from scientific to personal. At that point, there’s no other option than to…

(Give up the goose…)

As the mumps stories appeared, I readied myself for the assaults. I had all my arguments intact. Although the end result most likely would be a stalemate, I was prepared to go to social media war.

But something strange happened. Instead of flames and vitriol, the response to my efforts could be best described as…

(Crickets…)

There was no push back. There were no accusations of being a shill. The only comments I received shared thanks and appreciation. I even tried to stir the pot a little by spreading the word across different platforms. Yet still, there was no response. It’s as if there was hesitance in the hesitancy.

I know…

(Call it the Vinny Barbarino effect…)

I decided to ask around to find out if there were others feeling the effects of hesitancy but again, there was nothing. Instead, it seemed the advice to seek out vaccination against mumps was being left alone.

While I cannot say for sure what caused this lack of response to the mumps vaccine, I wonder if something else convinced them to stay clear of the issue. If I am right, then it may have something to do with a rather common symptom associated with infection…

(This is an actual ad…)

Maybe the fear of having excruciating pain in certain sensitive areas could overtake the urge to fight unwinnable battles. Perhaps the worry of infertility – for both men and women – could replace the baseless concerns over widespread vaccine harm. Or could it be that when it comes to an actual problem with lasting effects, such as diabetes and brain damage, people will turn to whatever works even if it goes against their principles?

In other words real fear may actually defeat…

(You get the idea…)

If this premise is correct, the result does leave a bitter taste. If the only way to gain the public’s trust is to scare them into acting on recommendations, we will continually need to have greater health threats in order to succeed. Granted, this may do some good in the short term but over the long haul, the efforts will end up hurting everyone. We’ll live in a continually worrisome society, which is as the hesitancy crowd would say…bad.

Not to mention, it may backfire such that we may have to worry about an even greater problem based on irrational fear. If you don’t believe me, let me bring back a word from a few years ago…

 (Need more be said?)

 

Worming Our Way Around Peanut Allergies…

If you’re a parent, you’ve no doubt come across this image…

peanut(Or any nut for that matter…)

Over the last few decades, the rise of peanut allergies in children has been called everything from a spike to an epidemic. Regardless of how you describe it, more kids than ever are at risk of a life-threatening situation.

The statistics don’t lie…

allergies(Pretty scary when you think about it…)

The reason for this increase is quite an enigma and researchers have been stymied by a lack of any strong connection between human behaviour and allergy occurrence.

However, there is one very interesting statistic most people don’t know. It can be best explained like this…

allergy-rise(A rainbow of risk…)

For some reason, allergies appear to be a problem only in certain regions of the world. More interesting, these areas are more developed, meaning they are richer and have improved standards for food, water, and sanitation safety.

While this may not sound any alarm bells, for certain researchers, this revelation can be best described as an…

ahamoment(A-Ha! Moment…)

Maybe…just maybe there is something in the food, water, or environment giving children in these less hygienic environments an added defense against allergy. If researchers could find that one factor, they might be able to find a way to ensure kids in the more developed countries don’t suffer.

The search has been going on for years and it appears one prime suspect has been found. It’s known as…

shistosoma(Schisto!)

Actually, it’s Schistosoma masoni and it’s better known as a blood fluke.

If you are up to date on your pathogenic microbiology – which I am sure you are – then you also know it’s a rather important infection causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and an enlarged spleen. It’s prevalent in 78 different countries and up to 700 million people are at risk.

I can imagine what you’re thinking…

crazy(Unlike more cowbell…)

Yet, the signs have continued to point to worm exposure as the one reason children do not develop allergies.

If you happen to be fully versed in immunology – which again, I am sure you happen to be – then you might think of an explanation for this strange coincidence. As far-fetches as it may sound, there may be a protein in worms that helps to prevent peanut allergies.

For years, the usual reaction to this theory was…

twilight(It does not make a Serling argument…)

But, it seems the critics have been proven wrong. It’s all thanks to a recent paper entitled,

Antigenic cross‐reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni and peanut: a role for cross‐reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and implications for the hygiene hypothesis

You can read the whole paper by clicking on the link but as the name implies, the researchers have shown a link between Schistosoma and protection against allergies. It all comes down to a group of proteins known as glycoproteins.

If you happen to be an expert in organic chemistry – and let’s face it, who isn’t – then you know that this is a molecule containing both amino acids and sugars. These are relatively large molecules allowing them to take on a three-dimensional shape. Sometimes, that formation can appear to be like another completely different glycoprotein.

Here’s where it gets interesting…

When a glycoprotein enters the body, the immune system reacts to the visitation in one of a few ways. It can either recognize it as harmless and do nothing. It can distinguish it as a foe and attack. Or it can see it as a serious threat that needs to be expelled. This latter process is what is also known as an allergic response.

What the researchers found in this study is that the glycoprotein known to cause peanut allergies is very similar in formation to a harmless component found in worm eggs. However, the response to the egg is far more powerful than the peanut. This means having the eggs present in the gastrointestinal tract could ultimately block any response to peanuts.

At its core, this study suggests children should have Schistosoma worm eggs to prevent peanut allergies. Which probably leads to the following reaction…

interseting(Yet evil too…)

After all, no one wants to infect children and put them at risk just to prevent allergies.

Thankfully, there is an alternative option. The eggs can be rendered inert such that they cannot grow into worms. They then could be ingested without worry.

While this concept is still being tested in labs, the potential does appear to be real. If the results continue to be positive, we may even see clinical trials in the near future. The treatment may even reach the level of regulatory approval. Should this ever happen, we may one day be able to help children deal with allergies and never have to worry about a life-to-death situation again.

There is just one catch. Even if this idea gains widespread approval, don’t expect the worm eggs to be widely available. Unlike those other types of eggs…

breakfast(I always prefer sunny side up…)

These will only be available through a doctor.

Are Cell Phones Bringing Us Closer To The Post-Antibiotic Era?

Whenever there is a crisis, people start to play the blame by association game. It’s a natural process. But sometimes, the game gets a little…

preposterous(Out of hand…)

A perfect example of this happened a few weeks ago. In response to the antibiotic resistance crisis, a few researchers decided to publish a paper entitled…

Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From
Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility
of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli

You can click on the title to read the whole study. But as the name implies, researchers have attempted to link the use of Wi-Fi and Mobile Phones to increasing rates of antibiotic resistance.

Just hearing this concept may make you want to say…

malarkey(Or balderdash for that matter…)

Yet, a few years ago, researchers did happen to notice an odd occurrence in bacteria placed in the presence of both Wi-Fi and cell phone radiation. The bacteria somehow gained the ability to resist antibiotics. At the time, it was considered to be a…

fluke(Fasciola hepatica to everyone else…) 

However, as with all experimental science, the results did create some interest and led to the aforementioned study.

The bacteria were placed in a zone where either Wi-Fi or cell phone radiation could be absorbed. At the same time, antibiotics were administered in an assay known as a…

zone-inhibition(Zone of Inhibition Test…)

Sensitivity and resistance are measured by the size of the zone of inhibition. The larger the diameter, the more sensitive the bacteria to the antibiotic. If there’s no zone, the bacteria are completely resistant.

The team focused on Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, two well known pathogens with a penchant for antibiotic resistance. No one actually expected the bacteria to gain resistance and yet…well, it gets weird…

ecoli-gsm
(This is E. coli in the presence of cell phone radiation…)

As you can see, the inhibition zone shrank for all the antibiotics after as little as three hours. This meant the bacteria had somehow figured out a way to resist the drugs. We’re not talking just penicillin but stronger types such as ciprofloxacin, or as we like to call it, cipro.

If you look at the 6 hour mark, you might decide the best thing to do is…

power-off(But can you get out of your contract?)

Mind you, this effect was short-lived. By 9 hours, the resistance began to wane and by 12 hours, there was no difference from the start of the test. As for the Wi-Fi, this is what the researchers observed…

ecoliwifi
(Not so bad…)

In contrast to the E. coli experiments, Listeria monocytogenes was not affected dramatically by the presence of either type of radiation. The bacteria seemingly had no radiation-resistance capability.

Usually when these studies come about, they fall into the type of category I like to call…

provocative(Or if you wish, intriguing…)

There was clearly some type of change going on in E. coli in the presence of cell phone radiation. Whatever it was somehow aided in resisting antibiotics.

This was not an evolutionary shift, mind you. It was instead a reaction to the presence of cell phone radiation. After getting used to the new environment, the bacteria went back to normal and started dying again.

From a microbiological perspective, this result definitely is worth following up. If we can figure out what is happening at the molecular level, we may be able to identify new coping mechanisms in the bacteria. We may also find new targets for therapy.

But in regards to the question posed in the title of this post, the best response happens to be…

no(Especially if you’re reading this post on your cell phone…)

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